LEO°, name of 13 popes. LEO VII (936–39) the only pope who openly advocated forcible measures for the conversion of the Jews. He advised Frederick, archbishop of Mainz from 937 and the pope's vicar in all the regions of Germany, to deliver to the Jews sermons on the Incarnation and the Trinity. If they refused to adopt the Christian faith, the pope authorized the bishop to banish them, "to avoid all contact with the enemies of God." It is true that Leo did not regard expulsion as a forcible measure, for he ended his letter by saying that, at all events, the Jews must not be compelled to accept baptism. It is also true that the initiative once more lay with the archbishop, and perhaps served as one of the weapons in his battle with the emperor Otto the Great, who had never denied his partiality for the Jews. LEO X (Giovanni de' Medici), pope, 1513–21, one of the most tolerant of popes, whose reign was a happy one for the Jews. Intervening in the reuchlin -pfefferkorn controversy, he ensured an outcome of the dispute favorable for the Jews. His personal physician, Jacob b. Emanuel (bonet lattes ), was so well regarded that Reuchlin approached him for a recommendation to the pope. In 1514 Leo reconfirmed the privileges of the Jews in comtat venaissin in opposition to the new measures which the bishop of carpentras wished to impose. He authorized the establishment of a Hebrew press in Rome and approved the printing of the Talmud. It is also true that the establishment of a chair of Hebrew in the University of Rome (1514) was aimed at promoting conversion, and Leo also granted considerable advantages to converts. (Bernhard Blumenkranz)   LEO XIII (Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci), pope, 1878–1903. Archbishop of Perugia from 1846 to 1878, he fought against the anticlerical laws passed in Italy after 1860. While he declared the Church receptive to cultural progress, he considered liberalism its archenemy and Judaism, which he saw as alienated from its own traditions, its driving force. As pope, his attitude toward Jews remained the same and during his pontificate the publication of a series of antisemitic articles in the Italian Jesuit organ, La Civiltà Cattolica , did not meet with any papal interference. The dreyfus case found his sympathies on the side of the anti-Dreyfusards, who included the French Catholics, though in principle he wanted to see justice rendered to Dreyfus. The antisemitic policy of la croix , a French Catholic daily, did not apparently contradict the pope's own attitude. In 1892 Leo XIII admitted that there was a Jewish problem, but he saw it mainly as economic. Herzl tried to establish contact with Leo XIII but failed. On the other hand, the report that the pope had issued a protest against Zionism (also quoted in Herzl's Diaries) was officially denied. (Willehad Paul Eckert) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: LEO VII: P. Browe, Judenmission im Mittelalter (1942), 243; B. Blumenkranz, Auteurs chrétiens latins… (1963), 219f. LEO X: Vogelstein-Rieger, 2 (1895), 32ff.; Milano, Italia, 238f.; P. Browe, op. cit., 155, 215. LEO XIII: P. Sorlin, La Croix et les Juifs, 18801899 (1967), index; T. Herzl, Complete Diaries (1960), index.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Leo — is the Latin word for lion. Leo can also refer to:* Leo (constellation) * Leo (astrology), a sign of the Zodiac * Leo the Lion (MGM), the mascot of the Metro Goldwyn Mayer film studio * Leo (film), a 2000 Spanish film, written and directed by… …   Wikipedia

  • Leo I. — Leo ist ein männlicher Vorname, griechisch Leon, Λέων. Er ist ebenfalls die Kurzform verschiedener Vornamen, die dieses Element beinhalten: männlich als Kurzform von Leopold, Leon(h)ard, Leonid oder Leas weiblich als Kurzform von Leontina,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • LEO — Leo, Léo oder LEO steht für: Leo (Vorname) (siehe dort auch für Herrscher namens Leo bzw. Leon) Léo, eine Provinzhauptstadt in Burkina Faso Löwe (Sternbild), ein Sternbild der Ekliptik Kleiner Löwe, ein Sternbild des Nordhimmels eine… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Leo — steht für: Leo (Vorname) (siehe dort auch für Herrscher namens Leo bzw. Leon) Leo (2007), schwedisches Krimi Drama aus dem Jahr 2007 Löwe (Sternbild), Sternbild der Ekliptik Kleiner Löwe, Sternbild des Nordhimmels eine Märchenschach Figur Taifun… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Leo X —     Pope Leo X     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Leo X     (GIOVANNI DE MEDICI).     Born at Florence, 11 December, 1475; died at Rome, 1 December, 1521, was the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449 1492) and Clarice Orsini, and from his… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Leo IX —     Pope St. Leo IX     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope St. Leo IX     (1049 54), b. at Egisheim, near Colmar, on the borders of Alsace, 21 June, 1002; d. 19 April, 1054. He belonged to a noble family which had given or was to give saints to the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • LEO — Léo Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Leo — Léo Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Leo IX. — Leo IX. in einer Briefsammlung des 11. Jahrhunderts Leo IX., geboren als Bruno von Egisheim Dagsburg (* 21. Juni 1002 in Egisheim (heute Eguisheim), Oberelsass; † 19. April 1054 in Rom), war ein Papst deutscher Abstammung, der vom… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • LEO LT — AB is energy holding company in Lithuania. The name of the company stands for Lithuanian Electricity Organization ( lt. Lietuvos elektros organizacija). The holding company own shares of Lithuania s three major power production and distribution… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”